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Association between Body Composition, Physical Activity, Food Intake and Bone Status in German Children and Adolescents

Achieving a high bone mass during childhood and adolescence is important for the prevention of osteoporosis in later life. Herein, researchers from the University of Education Schwäbisch Gmünd explored the relationship of various lifestyle factors and bone outcomes in school children. In 248 girls and 231 boys bone mass (stiffness index, SI; calcaneal quantitative ultrasonometry), body composition (bioelectrical impedance analysis), food intake (food frequency questionnaire), and physical activity level (PAL; standardized questionnaire) were assessed. The individual food intake of eight food groups was related to the German recommendations (Bone Healthy Eating Index). Relationships between SI and lifestyle factors and the influence of the factors on the variance of SI (multiple linear regression) were tested. SI correlated with age, BMI, absolute fat-free mass, relative fat mass, PAL, and puberty category score in both girls and boys (r = 0.18-0.56, p < 0.01), but not with Bone Healthy Eating Index. Age, absolute fat-free mass, sex, and PAL explained 35% of the variance of SI : SI = -0.60 + 2.97∙age (years) + 0.65∙fat-free mass (kg) + 6.21∙sex (0 = male, 1 = female) + 17.55∙PAL. Besides age and sex, PAL and fat-free mass are important factors relating to bone health. School children should perform regular physical activity to improve their bone status.

Heydenreich J, Schweter A, Lührmann P.  Association between Body Composition, Physical Activity, Food Intake and Bone Status in German Children and AdolescentsInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Oct 6;17(19):7294. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17197294.
https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/17/19/7294